Murtagh's Triads

Dizziness + hearing loss + tinnitus (unilateral)
Vertigo + vomiting + tinnitus + sensorineural deafness
Study Topic Ideas

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For investigations, consider the indications for ordering the test and the key findings for common or critical conditions.
  • Audiograms edit
  • Bilateral mild conductive hearing loss edit
  • Bilateral mixed hearing loss. edit
  • Meniere disease in the right ear edit
  • Noise-induced hearing loss. edit
  • Normal audiogram edit
  • Normal type A tympanogram edit
  • Otosclerosis edit
  • Presbycusis edit
  • Right unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. edit
  • Throat swabs edit
  • Throat swabs edit
  • Tympanometry edit
  • Type AD tympanogram edit
  • Type AS tympanogram edit
  • Type B + high ear canal volume Tympanogram edit
  • Type B + low ear canal volume tympanogram edit
  • Type B tympanogram edit
  • Type C tympanogram edit
  • Type CD tympanogram edit
  • Type CS Tympanogram edit
  • Unilateral mild conductive hearing loss in the right ear edit
In addition to managing the key diagnoses related to each of the presenting problems above, here are some examples of key management issues to think about.
  • Antibiotic overuse edit
  • Aural toilet edit
  • Nasal packing edit
  • Nasal spray technique edit
For each diagnosis that arises from your differentials, you can then consider the key signs, investigations and management. This list is by no means exhaustive, but here are a few assorted diagnoses to consider.
  • Acoustic neuroma edit
  • Acoustic trauma edit
  • Acute labyrinthitis edit
  • Acute otitis media edit
  • Acute sinusitis edit
  • Barotrauma edit
  • Cholesteatoma edit
  • Chronic otitis media edit
  • Chronic sinusitis edit
  • Eustachian tube dysfunction edit
  • Glossopharyngeal neuralgia edit
  • Impacted cerumen edit
  • Lateral sinus thrombosis edit
  • Malignant otitis externa edit
  • Mastoiditis edit
  • Meniere syndrome edit
  • Otitis externa edit
  • Otitis media with effusion edit
  • Otosclerosis edit
  • Perforated eardrum edit
  • Peritonsillar abscess edit
  • Pharyngeal cancer edit
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome edit
  • Retropharyngeal abscess edit
  • TMJ dysfunction edit
  • Tympanosclerosis edit
  • Vestibular neuritis edit
Foundation topics like anatomy, physiology and embryology are not the main focus of GP fellowship exams. The following are examples of topics that may be useful for quizzing any medical students you are supervising:
Medical students may be more focused on learning basic definitions, aetiology and pathophysiology of specific diagnoses, but registrars need to focus more on clinical problem solving. For each common presenting problem, consider what would be the red flag features, the most common differentials, as well as the most dangerous and most often missed (see Murtagh for more information on this model). For each diagnosis that arises from your differentials, you can then consider the key signs, investigations and management.
Medicine is nebulous with many conditions that arise infrequently in General Practice. These topics are not the main focus of college exams but nonetheless might occasionally appear - just as they can appear in your consultation room on a Friday afternoon. Other topics are so controversial that they are very difficult to examine. Here are some examples of topics that should not be the main focus of your study.
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