Kidney Health Australia provides ample resources for renal topics – there is a full list of their resources here. The CKD guidelines are essential reading. They also have a large array of patient factsheets. The AFP (now AJGP) has a collection of useful articles on renal and urological topics.

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Murtagh's Triads

Severe abdominal pain + abnormal illness behavior + 'red' urine

Mx Pearls

Preventing acute kidney injury: which are the key drugs to be avoided on a sick day?
SAD MANS mnemonic: S sulfonylureas A ACE-inhibitors D diuretics M metformin A angiotensin receptor blockers N non-steroidal anti-inflammatory S SGLT2 inhibitors
What are the 3 elements of a Kidney Health Check?
Kidney Health Check = BP check + Urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) + eGFR.
Study Topic Ideas

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For investigations, consider the indications for ordering the test and the key findings for common or critical conditions.
In addition to managing the key diagnoses related to each of the presenting problems above, here are some examples of key management issues to think about.
  • AKI Prevention: Drugs to be avoided on a sick day edit
  • Antibiotic resistance and UTIs edit
  • Kidney health check edit
  • Nephrotoxins edit
  • Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for UTIs edit
  • Prescribing in dialysis edit
  • Prescribing in renal impairment edit
For each diagnosis that arises from your differentials, you can then consider the key signs, investigations and management. This list is by no means exhaustive, but here are a few assorted diagnoses to consider.
  • Acute intermittent porphyria edit
  • Alport’s syndrome edit
  • Bladder cancer edit
  • Bladder outlet obstruction edit
  • Bladder stone edit
  • Chronic Kidney Disease edit
  • Glomerulonephritis edit
  • Hypokalemia edit
  • IgA nephropathy edit
  • Kidney cancer edit
  • Nephrotic syndrome edit
  • Polycystic kidney disease edit
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis edit
  • Reiter syndrome (Reactive arthritis) edit
  • Rhabdomyolysis edit
  • Ureteric colic edit
  • UTI edit
  • UTI – complicated edit
  • Wilms tumour edit
  • Wilms’ tumour edit
Foundation topics like anatomy, physiology and embryology are not the main focus of GP fellowship exams. The following are examples of topics that may be useful for quizzing any medical students you are supervising:
  • Glomerular filtration edit
  • Kidney anatomy edit
Medical students may be more focused on learning basic definitions, aetiology and pathophysiology of specific diagnoses, but registrars need to focus more on clinical problem solving. For each common presenting problem, consider what would be the red flag features, the most common differentials, as well as the most dangerous and most often missed (see Murtagh for more information on this model). For each diagnosis that arises from your differentials, you can then consider the key signs, investigations and management.
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria edit
  • Dysuria edit
  • Flank pain edit
  • Haematuria edit
  • Hyperkalemia edit
  • Hyponatremia edit
  • Low Urinary Tract Symptoms edit
  • Urinary incontinence edit
  • Urinary retention edit
Medicine is nebulous with many conditions that arise infrequently in General Practice. These topics are not the main focus of college exams but nonetheless might occasionally appear - just as they can appear in your consultation room on a Friday afternoon. Other topics are so controversial that they are very difficult to examine. Here are some examples of topics that should not be the main focus of your study.
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